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  • 公民抗命

    指主動不服從既有的政權所訂立的法律或命令,以達到某些政治目標的社會行動。它有時也被稱為「非暴力抗爭」。重點是行動者並不是透過暴力行為去達到目標。

    最早的其中一次公民抗命,是1919年埃及人反對英國殖民統治。而最有名、並且在雨傘運動中被廣為討論的,就是印度的甘地對大英帝國的公民抗命。除此以外,捷克、東德、南非、美國也曾出現不少公民抗命的例子。

    「雨傘運動」之名,是英國《獨立報》用的名詞,以形容香港市民要求撤回人大政改框架的社會運動。本來,泛民主派出現部份人士提出「佔領中環」,當中的理論基礎就是公民抗命,打算佔領中環後不反抗、主動被警方拘捕。後來,運動的領導權並不落在佔中運動者身上;但是,整個運動的形式也有受公民抗命的理論基礎影響,例如盡力忍受反對運動者的攻擊、不報復、也不屈服等,都是公民抗命的基本特徵。

    “Civil disobedience” is a form of non-violent protest, which involves openly and peacefully defying laws and institutions that are considered unjust, with the aim of reforming them.

    The term and idea can be traced back to the essay “Resistance to Civil Government” by 19th century American writer H. D. Thoreau. Since then civil disobedience has been utilized across the world. A famous example is the struggle led by Mahatma Gandhi against British colonial rule in India. Another prominent example is the Civil Rights Movement in America symbolized by Martin Luther King; among other things, African Americans refused to take buses where seats were racially segregated into sections. Additional instances of civil disobedience can be found in Czechoslovakia, East Germany and South Africa. The “Umbrella Movement” in Hong Kong thus belongs to a long tradition of citizens refusing to cooperate with what they see as injustice.

    In 2013, Benny Tai Yiu-ting, a professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Hong Kong, published an article titled “Civil Disobedience - A Weapon of Mass Destruction” in the local newspaper Economic Journal. Thus the concept of civil disobedience was brought into public discussion. Benny Tai is one of the three founders of the Occupy Central Movement along with Chan Kin-man and Chu Yiu-ming. The trio proposed that by non-violently occupying and paralysing the Central financial district, Hong Kongers could express their desire for genuine universal suffrage; the more Occupiers there are, the more damage to the government’s credibility there will be due to the increased difficulty of clearance. The Occupiers would announce their move in advance, and would not resist arrest.

    Although the Occupy Central trio had minimum control over the crowds during the Umbrella Movement, their ideas have taken root nonetheless: for the most part protesters have avoided clashing with the police, even when they far outnumbered the latter. On Dec 3 2014, the trio surrendered themselves to the police. Later on, when the Admiralty protest zone was cleared on Dec 11, CUHK professor Chow Po-chung, singer Denise Ho Wan-see and some members of the Federation of Students refused to leave, and sat on the road until the police eventually arrested them. Thus they have bore the legal consequence of their own actions, and exemplified the spirit of civil disobedience.

    公民抗命
    Civil disobedience

    指主動不服從既有的政權所訂立的法律或命令,以達到某些政治目標的社會行動。它有時也被稱為「非暴力抗爭」。重點是行動者並不是透過暴力行為去達到目標。

    最早的其中一次公民抗命,是1919年埃及人反對英國殖民統治。而最有名、並且在雨傘運動中被廣為討論的,就是印度的甘地對大英帝國的公民抗命。除此以外,捷克、東德、南非、美國也曾出現不少公民抗命的例子。

    「雨傘運動」之名,是英國《獨立報》用的名詞,以形容香港市民要求撤回人大政改框架的社會運動。本來,泛民主派出現部份人士提出「佔領中環」,當中的理論基礎就是公民抗命,打算佔領中環後不反抗、主動被警方拘捕。後來,運動的領導權並不落在佔中運動者身上;但是,整個運動的形式也有受公民抗命的理論基礎影響,例如盡力忍受反對運動者的攻擊、不報復、也不屈服等,都是公民抗命的基本特徵。

    “Civil disobedience” is a form of non-violent protest, which involves openly and peacefully defying laws and institutions that are considered unjust, with the aim of reforming them.

    The term and idea can be traced back to the essay “Resistance to Civil Government” by 19th century American writer H. D. Thoreau. Since then civil disobedience has been utilized across the world. A famous example is the struggle led by Mahatma Gandhi against British colonial rule in India. Another prominent example is the Civil Rights Movement in America symbolized by Martin Luther King; among other things, African Americans refused to take buses where seats were racially segregated into sections. Additional instances of civil disobedience can be found in Czechoslovakia, East Germany and South Africa. The “Umbrella Movement” in Hong Kong thus belongs to a long tradition of citizens refusing to cooperate with what they see as injustice.

    In 2013, Benny Tai Yiu-ting, a professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Hong Kong, published an article titled “Civil Disobedience - A Weapon of Mass Destruction” in the local newspaper Economic Journal. Thus the concept of civil disobedience was brought into public discussion. Benny Tai is one of the three founders of the Occupy Central Movement along with Chan Kin-man and Chu Yiu-ming. The trio proposed that by non-violently occupying and paralysing the Central financial district, Hong Kongers could express their desire for genuine universal suffrage; the more Occupiers there are, the more damage to the government’s credibility there will be due to the increased difficulty of clearance. The Occupiers would announce their move in advance, and would not resist arrest.

    Although the Occupy Central trio had minimum control over the crowds during the Umbrella Movement, their ideas have taken root nonetheless: for the most part protesters have avoided clashing with the police, even when they far outnumbered the latter. On Dec 3 2014, the trio surrendered themselves to the police. Later on, when the Admiralty protest zone was cleared on Dec 11, CUHK professor Chow Po-chung, singer Denise Ho Wan-see and some members of the Federation of Students refused to leave, and sat on the road until the police eventually arrested them. Thus they have bore the legal consequence of their own actions, and exemplified the spirit of civil disobedience.

    延伸閱讀 Further reading
    BBC中文網:〈香港觀察:「佔領中環」與「公民抗命」〉 http://www.bbc.co.uk/zhongwen/trad/hong_kong_review/2013/03/130326_hkreview_general_election
    相關詞 Related terms