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  • 中國人民政治協商會議

    政協,全名「中國人民政治協商會議」,是中國政治機構之一。是中國共產黨領導的多黨合作和政治協商制度的統一戰線組織。

    1949年初,國共內戰大勢已定。中共召集國民黨以外的其它各黨派代表及社會人士,商議建國事宜。是次會議稱為「中國人民政治協商會議」,它的工作包括制定臨時憲法,選出首都、政治主席、國歌等等。故此立國前已經存在的「政協」的歷史,比立國後才存在的「人大」更久遠。立國後,「政協」被視為體現了共產黨領導下的「多黨合作」及「政治協商制度」。政協的職能是政治協商、民主監督、參政議政。「政協委員」中,不少是專業界別或社會各界人士,包括各行業的專家、影視明星、商人、港澳同胞、海外華僑等等,以作為黨及政府願意跟社會各界「協商」的、「民主」的表現。在名義或實質上,政協只屬諮詢架構(其英文是consultative conference),並沒有規定黨和政府要回應政協的意見、或落實有關建議。所以也有部份人認為,政協委員是不能影響決策的「政治花瓶」。

    香港前特首董建華,現時為全國政協副主席。名義上,他被稱為「國家領導人」之一。董建華曾公開反對「佔中」。雨傘運動中,他曾呼籲說已聽到學生的聲音、希望學生回家,被部份人視為「中央」的傳話。另外,自由黨主席田北俊因為建議特首下台,被撤銷其「全國政協委員」的資格。

    The People’s Political Consultative Conference is a political organization in China and one of the united front organizations led by the Communist Party, their aim being to promote inter-party collaboration and political compromise.

    In early 1949, when the civil war against the Nationalists had been largely decided, the Communist Party of China assembled representatives of other parties and figures from society at large to discuss issues pertaining to the founding of a new state. This conference, known as the “Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference”, was tasked with creating a draft constitution as well as deciding on the nation’s capital, leadership, and anthem, among other things. The People’s Political Consultative Conference therefore, having existed before the founding of the state, is a more historied organization than the National People’s Congress, which was formed after that date. In the post-establishment era, the Communist Party of China sees the People’s Political Consultative Conference as an effective realization of Party-led “multi-party collaboration” and “system of political compromise”. The People’s Political Consultative Conference is formally tasked with carrying out political compromise, conducting democratic oversight, and engaging in deliberative policy-making. Among its delegates, many hail from various professions and social backgrounds, and these include specialists from sectors of employment, film stars, merchants, “compatriots” of Hong Kong and Macau and overseas Chinese, etc., in order to give the appearance that Party and state are “democratic” in their willingness to “compromise” with all levels of society. In practice (also in name, unambiguously so in English), the People’s Political Consultative Conference is an advisory body and cannot compel neither the Party nor the state to respond to its recommendations, much less carry them out. It is for this reason that some liken delegates to “political flower vases” that is, appearances aside, they are powerless when it comes to influencing policy.

    Former Hong Kong Chief Executive Mr. Tung Chee-hwa currently serves as Vice-Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and for this is nominally referred to as being in “a position of state leadership”. Having openly stated opposition to “Occupy Central”, Mr. Tung Chee-hwa would later state, during the Umbrella Movement, his hope for students to go home as they had already succeeded in getting their point across, words that were considered by some to be “relayed messages” from central government. In a separate event, then-Leader of the Liberal Party James Tien Pei-chun had his membership to the People’s Political Consultative Committee revoked after he made comments advising the Chief Executive to resign.

    中國人民政治協商會議
    People’s Political Consultative Conference

    政協,全名「中國人民政治協商會議」,是中國政治機構之一。是中國共產黨領導的多黨合作和政治協商制度的統一戰線組織。

    1949年初,國共內戰大勢已定。中共召集國民黨以外的其它各黨派代表及社會人士,商議建國事宜。是次會議稱為「中國人民政治協商會議」,它的工作包括制定臨時憲法,選出首都、政治主席、國歌等等。故此立國前已經存在的「政協」的歷史,比立國後才存在的「人大」更久遠。立國後,「政協」被視為體現了共產黨領導下的「多黨合作」及「政治協商制度」。政協的職能是政治協商、民主監督、參政議政。「政協委員」中,不少是專業界別或社會各界人士,包括各行業的專家、影視明星、商人、港澳同胞、海外華僑等等,以作為黨及政府願意跟社會各界「協商」的、「民主」的表現。在名義或實質上,政協只屬諮詢架構(其英文是consultative conference),並沒有規定黨和政府要回應政協的意見、或落實有關建議。所以也有部份人認為,政協委員是不能影響決策的「政治花瓶」。

    香港前特首董建華,現時為全國政協副主席。名義上,他被稱為「國家領導人」之一。董建華曾公開反對「佔中」。雨傘運動中,他曾呼籲說已聽到學生的聲音、希望學生回家,被部份人視為「中央」的傳話。另外,自由黨主席田北俊因為建議特首下台,被撤銷其「全國政協委員」的資格。

    The People’s Political Consultative Conference is a political organization in China and one of the united front organizations led by the Communist Party, their aim being to promote inter-party collaboration and political compromise.

    In early 1949, when the civil war against the Nationalists had been largely decided, the Communist Party of China assembled representatives of other parties and figures from society at large to discuss issues pertaining to the founding of a new state. This conference, known as the “Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference”, was tasked with creating a draft constitution as well as deciding on the nation’s capital, leadership, and anthem, among other things. The People’s Political Consultative Conference therefore, having existed before the founding of the state, is a more historied organization than the National People’s Congress, which was formed after that date. In the post-establishment era, the Communist Party of China sees the People’s Political Consultative Conference as an effective realization of Party-led “multi-party collaboration” and “system of political compromise”. The People’s Political Consultative Conference is formally tasked with carrying out political compromise, conducting democratic oversight, and engaging in deliberative policy-making. Among its delegates, many hail from various professions and social backgrounds, and these include specialists from sectors of employment, film stars, merchants, “compatriots” of Hong Kong and Macau and overseas Chinese, etc., in order to give the appearance that Party and state are “democratic” in their willingness to “compromise” with all levels of society. In practice (also in name, unambiguously so in English), the People’s Political Consultative Conference is an advisory body and cannot compel neither the Party nor the state to respond to its recommendations, much less carry them out. It is for this reason that some liken delegates to “political flower vases” that is, appearances aside, they are powerless when it comes to influencing policy.

    Former Hong Kong Chief Executive Mr. Tung Chee-hwa currently serves as Vice-Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and for this is nominally referred to as being in “a position of state leadership”. Having openly stated opposition to “Occupy Central”, Mr. Tung Chee-hwa would later state, during the Umbrella Movement, his hope for students to go home as they had already succeeded in getting their point across, words that were considered by some to be “relayed messages” from central government. In a separate event, then-Leader of the Liberal Party James Tien Pei-chun had his membership to the People’s Political Consultative Committee revoked after he made comments advising the Chief Executive to resign.

    延伸閱讀 Further reading
    〈董建華簽名反佔中〉,《星島日報》,2014年10月31日, https://hk.news.yahoo.com/董建華簽名支持反佔中-150600270.html

    〈田北俊被踢出政協〉,《東方日報》,2014年10月29日, http://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/news/20141029/00174_001.html
    相關詞 Related terms