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  • 全國人民代表大會

    全稱「全國人民代表大會」,是共產黨領導下的「最高國家權力機關」,在對外交往上類似國會。常設機關是「全國人大常務委員會」,全國人大及其常務委員會共同行使國家立法權。人大由全國各界的代表組成,包括來自省、自治區、直轄市、特別行政區和軍隊等的代表。

    在中國內地,省、自治區和直轄市的「全國人大代表」,由相應級別人大的「間接選舉」產生,即由代表去投票,而不是由民眾直接投票參選人。候選人由政黨、人民團體,或十人以上聯名提名。而競選過程,也經常是「等額選舉」,即候選人數與應選人數相等(如2個人爭奪2個席位),在選舉發生之前經各界「協商」而來。在香港,要競選成為代表香港特區的全國人大代表,必須先從1800個人的「選舉會議成員」中得到10張提名票。中國的國家元首國家主席和政府首腦國務院總理都是通過全國人大等額選舉產生。]

    雨傘運動爆發的主要原因,是全國人大常委會於2014年8月31日就香港行政長官普選發展作出的決定:
    (一)選出特首的「提名委員會」維持1200人的四大界別;
    (二)要被提名競選特首,要從現時的「得到八份一提名」(即得到150提名委員會的委員提名)成為「須得到過半數提名」(即得到600名委員提名);
    (三)候選人必須是2-3人。

    雨傘運動者的訴求之一,便是撤回人大常委會831決定,重啓政改。運動者認為,這決定使將來的政治制度必然是不能代表香港民意的「假普選」。反方則認為,要人大撤回決定,是挑戰中央和國家體制的權威。

    The National People’s Congress is the “highest body of state authority” under Party leadership and is represented as China’s parliament in foreign dealings. Its core operational body is the Standing Committee, which jointly wields and exercises ultimate state legislative powers with the sessionally convened national delegates. Delegates to the National People’s Congress are allotted to different sectors of the nation, including the provinces, autonomous regions, direct-controlled municipalities, special administrative regions, the People’s Liberation Army, etc.

    In mainland China, delegates from the provinces, autonomous regions and direct-controlled municipalities receive office by possessing the necessary rank and winning a regional indirect election, a process in which votes are cast by representatives rather than by the public, as in the method of direct election. Nomination can be by party groups, civic societies, or petition of ten or more signatories. In practice, these elections are frequently “quota matching”, meaning the number of candidates on the ballot is equal to the number of seats, a result of “consensus forming” carried out by the relevant parties before the election. In Hong Kong, delegates are nominated by receiving 10 or more “nomination votes” from the a 1800-strong electoral college known as the Election Committee. It is interesting to note that historically, China’s head of state—the President and head of government—Premier of the State Council, have been voted into office by the National People’s Congress under “quota matching” conditions or in other words, all ran unopposed.

    On 31 August, 2014, the National People’s Congress came to a decision over the method by which Hong Kong would elect its next Chief Executive, a decision that would play a major role in catalyzing the Umbrella Movement; it contained the following:
    1. the existing Election Committee of 1200 seats from the four main sectors will remain unchanged and will continue to elect the Chief Executive as before;
    2. the number of nominations an individual must receive from the Election Committee before they may stand as candidate will be increased from one-eighth of the Committee to more than half (150 nominations requirement is now 600);
    3. the number of candidates will be two to three.

    The Umbrella Movement would later call for the National People’s Congress to rescind its 31 August decision and Hong Kong to abandon the current plans of political reform and restart anew. Supporters argue that a “fake election” as prescribed would inevitably fail to represent public opinion. Those opposed to these demands argue that they are tantamount to challenging the legitimate authority of central government and state system of rule.

    全國人民代表大會
    National People’s Congress

    全稱「全國人民代表大會」,是共產黨領導下的「最高國家權力機關」,在對外交往上類似國會。常設機關是「全國人大常務委員會」,全國人大及其常務委員會共同行使國家立法權。人大由全國各界的代表組成,包括來自省、自治區、直轄市、特別行政區和軍隊等的代表。

    在中國內地,省、自治區和直轄市的「全國人大代表」,由相應級別人大的「間接選舉」產生,即由代表去投票,而不是由民眾直接投票參選人。候選人由政黨、人民團體,或十人以上聯名提名。而競選過程,也經常是「等額選舉」,即候選人數與應選人數相等(如2個人爭奪2個席位),在選舉發生之前經各界「協商」而來。在香港,要競選成為代表香港特區的全國人大代表,必須先從1800個人的「選舉會議成員」中得到10張提名票。中國的國家元首國家主席和政府首腦國務院總理都是通過全國人大等額選舉產生。]

    雨傘運動爆發的主要原因,是全國人大常委會於2014年8月31日就香港行政長官普選發展作出的決定:
    (一)選出特首的「提名委員會」維持1200人的四大界別;
    (二)要被提名競選特首,要從現時的「得到八份一提名」(即得到150提名委員會的委員提名)成為「須得到過半數提名」(即得到600名委員提名);
    (三)候選人必須是2-3人。

    雨傘運動者的訴求之一,便是撤回人大常委會831決定,重啓政改。運動者認為,這決定使將來的政治制度必然是不能代表香港民意的「假普選」。反方則認為,要人大撤回決定,是挑戰中央和國家體制的權威。

    The National People’s Congress is the “highest body of state authority” under Party leadership and is represented as China’s parliament in foreign dealings. Its core operational body is the Standing Committee, which jointly wields and exercises ultimate state legislative powers with the sessionally convened national delegates. Delegates to the National People’s Congress are allotted to different sectors of the nation, including the provinces, autonomous regions, direct-controlled municipalities, special administrative regions, the People’s Liberation Army, etc.

    In mainland China, delegates from the provinces, autonomous regions and direct-controlled municipalities receive office by possessing the necessary rank and winning a regional indirect election, a process in which votes are cast by representatives rather than by the public, as in the method of direct election. Nomination can be by party groups, civic societies, or petition of ten or more signatories. In practice, these elections are frequently “quota matching”, meaning the number of candidates on the ballot is equal to the number of seats, a result of “consensus forming” carried out by the relevant parties before the election. In Hong Kong, delegates are nominated by receiving 10 or more “nomination votes” from the a 1800-strong electoral college known as the Election Committee. It is interesting to note that historically, China’s head of state—the President and head of government—Premier of the State Council, have been voted into office by the National People’s Congress under “quota matching” conditions or in other words, all ran unopposed.

    On 31 August, 2014, the National People’s Congress came to a decision over the method by which Hong Kong would elect its next Chief Executive, a decision that would play a major role in catalyzing the Umbrella Movement; it contained the following:
    1. the existing Election Committee of 1200 seats from the four main sectors will remain unchanged and will continue to elect the Chief Executive as before;
    2. the number of nominations an individual must receive from the Election Committee before they may stand as candidate will be increased from one-eighth of the Committee to more than half (150 nominations requirement is now 600);
    3. the number of candidates will be two to three.

    The Umbrella Movement would later call for the National People’s Congress to rescind its 31 August decision and Hong Kong to abandon the current plans of political reform and restart anew. Supporters argue that a “fake election” as prescribed would inevitably fail to represent public opinion. Those opposed to these demands argue that they are tantamount to challenging the legitimate authority of central government and state system of rule.

    延伸閱讀 Further reading
    〈人大常委會決定要點〉,《東方日報》,2014年9月1日, http://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/news/20140901/00176_002.html

    全國人大常委會(2014年8月31日)。〈全國人民代表大會常務委員會關於香港特別行政區行政長官普選問題和2016年立法會產生辦法的決定〉,新華社,http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2014-08/31/c_1112298240.htm

    〈人大常委政改落閘,泛民:痛心疾首誓否決方案〉,信報,2014年8月31日,http://www2.hkej.com/instantnews/current/article/891210/
    相關詞 Related terms